At present, China has approved the use of a total of eight kinds of phosphate, including sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, trisodium phosphate, disodium hydrogen phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, acid pyrophosphate, Phosphates Hydrogen disodium and so on. The addition of these substances to foodstuffs contributes to the diversification of food varieties, improves their color, fragrance, taste and shape, preserves the freshness and quality of food and meets the needs of the processing process. They are important quality improvers.
Meat processing, the addition of phosphate has the following effects: to improve the pH value of meat; chelate meat in the metal ions; increase the ionic strength of meat; dissociation actomyosin. Therefore, the addition of phosphate, can improve the product of water retention and yield. However, the ability of phosphates to improve meat retention and improve meat texture depends on the type of phosphate applied, the conditions of the phosphate system, and the amount of phosphate added.
Phosphate in the meat products have to maintain the water holding capacity of meat, enhance the role of knot and so on. Meat in the freezing, refrigeration, thawing and heating and other processing, Phosphates will lose a certain amount of water, and make the meat hardened, and because of loss of water and some soluble protein and other nutrients. When adding phosphate in the meat, it can improve the water holding capacity of meat, so that the meat in the processing process can still maintain its moisture, so that the loss of meat nutrients, but also preserved the tenderness of the meat.
The role of phosphate in meat products
Phosphate phosphate ions have chelating effect, can chelate and calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and other metal ions. After the addition of phosphate in the meat, can release a large number of anionic groups, these groups quickly act on the impact of meat water retention of calcium, magnesium and other cations, the formation of a stable combination, so put the negatively charged carboxyl Released, increased the negative charge of the mutual repulsion, Phosphates destruction of the protein structure of the main peptide chain, making the structure of relaxation, increased water absorption. Polyacids are hydrophilic, water-retaining agents that stabilize the moisture contained in the food. Its water quality is good or bad, and the type of phosphate, the amount of food, pH value, ionic strength and other factors. For meat products and seafood, the best water holding capacity is pyrophosphate, followed by the tripolyphosphate, with the chain length increases, polyphosphate water holding capacity will be weakened.
Increase the ionic strength in the meat
Myosin is soluble in water into a gel and dissolves in a salt solution with an ionic strength of 0.2 or more. Under normal circumstances, the water absorption is very low. However, when the phosphate is added, it can provide an ionic strength of 0.6 or more, Globulin from the myofibrils dissolved, Phosphates to achieve a higher water absorption, and myosin has a strong dispersion, peeling and emulsification. Phosphate is a kind of polymerization medium, and has the characteristics of inorganic surfactants, so that the water insoluble material dispersed or the formation of a stable suspension to prevent the suspension of the adhesion, condensation.
Emulsifying and dispersing
Because the phosphate can make the protein of the water-soluble glue on the fat ball to form a film, so that the fat more effectively dispersed in water, which is widely used in starch phosphorylation, pigment dispersion, emulsified food (dairy products , Ice cream, salad, sauces, etc.) and disperse stabilizers for sausages, meat products, surimi products. For linear polyphosphates, Phosphates the emulsifying and dispersing capacity increases with increasing chain length.
Application of Phosphate in Cereals and Oils
1, the effect of phosphate on the improvement of noodles mainly in: increase gluten gluten, reduce starch dissolution; enhance the viscoelasticity of noodles; improve the surface roughness of noodles.
2, the application of phosphate in the production of quick-frozen bread, the main feature is to improve the bread texture and taste; increase the bread's water retention capacity, reduce the bread in the molding, proofing and steaming after the cooling process of water loss; ; Reduce the bread after the thawing of the crack; so that the bread of the balloon is more uniform, delicate texture, taste good.
3, composite phosphate on the frozen dumplings also have a certain impact. Add phosphate to prevent dumplings from thawing after dumpling skin color deepening. The application of complex phosphate in seafood processing, can effectively solve the seafood flavor and nutrient loss of the problem, to prevent and reduce the oxidation; reduce the body discoloration, taste, so that the muscle tissue has better water retention, Better, and improve its water retention when thawed.
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