At present, China has approved the use of 8 kinds of phosphates, including sodium tripolyphosphate, six sodium phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium phosphate two hydrogen, acid-type pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate two hydrogen disodium. The addition of these substances in food can help to diversify the food varieties, improve their color, aroma, taste and shape, keep the freshness and quality of food, and meet the needs of processing process. They are important quality modifiers. Phosphates During the processing of meat products, the addition of phosphates has the following effects: To improve the ph value of meat, to chelate the metal ions in the meat, to increase the ionic strength of the meat and to extract the myosin. Therefore, after adding phosphates, the water retention and yield of the products can be improved. However, phosphates improve meat retention, Phosphates and the ability to improve meat quality depends on the type of phosphates applied, the conditions under which phosphate systems are applied, and the amount of phosphate added. The phosphate has the function of keeping the water holding water and enhancing the knot effort in the meat products. Meat in freezing, refrigeration, thawing and heating process, Phosphates will lose a certain amount of water, and make the meat harden, and lost some soluble protein and other nutrients. When adding phosphates to meat, it can improve the water holding capacity of meat, so that the meat can still keep its moisture in the process of processing, so that the nutrients of meat are less lost, Phosphates and the tenderness of the fleshy is preserved.
2 function and use in meat products:
① water-holding function: phosphate phosphate ions have chelate effect, can chelate and calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and other metal ions. After adding phosphates to the meat, a large number of anions can be released these groups quickly affect the meat's water retention of calcium, magnesium and other cations, forming a stable bond, so that the negatively charged carboxyl groups released, Phosphates increased the negative charge of mutual repulsion, destroyed the protein structure of the main peptide chain, making the structure slack, Increased suction power. Poly-acid salt is a very hydrophilic water retention agent, it can be very good to the food contained in the moisture stability. Phosphates The quality of water holding is related to the kinds of phosphates, the amount of additives, the ph value of food, and the ionic strength. For meat products and seafood, the best water holding capacity is pyrophosphate, followed by triphosphate, as the chain length increases, the water holding capacity of poly phosphate will weaken.
② increases the ionic strength of the meat: myosin dissolves in water and easily becomes a gel, in the ionic strength of more than 0.2 salt solution dissolved, Phosphates under normal circumstances its water absorption is very low, however, after the addition of phosphates, it can provide more than 0.6 ionic strength, prompting the myosin from the muscle of the original fiber dissolved, to achieve a high absorption, Phosphates And make the myosin has the extremely strong dispersing, the gum dissolve and the emulsification function. Phosphate is a kind of polymerization dielectric, and has the characteristic of inorganic surfactant, can make the insoluble matter in water disperse or form stable suspending liquid, Phosphates in order to prevent the adhesion and condensation of the suspension liquid.
③ Emulsification and dispersion: as phosphate can make the aqueous sol of protein form a plastic film on the fat sphere, so that fat is more effectively dispersed in the water, it is widely used in starch phosphorylation, pigment dispersion, emulsifying food (dairy products, ice cream, salad, sauces, etc.) and as a sausage, meat products, A dispersing stabilizer for surimi products. Phosphates The emulsifying and dispersing capacity of the amylose is enhanced with the increase of chain length.
④ enhances protein and myosin, enhances hydration and water-holding capacity of meat products, enhances water immersion, promotes softening of food and improves food quality, Phosphates and keeps food flavor. Because the level of a T p decreased after slaughter of livestock and poultry, the myosin could not be isolated from actin and myosin, and the water-holding capacity of the meat decreased. However, the low degree of polymerization of phosphate has a similar effect of adenosine three, which can make the myosin dissociation into actin and myosin, which increases the water retention and improves the tenderness of the meat. At the same time, phosphates in dairy products can prevent the condensation of milk when heated, to prevent the separation of casein and fat water.
⑤ chelation: Phosphate is easy to form soluble collaterals and compounds with metal cations in solution, thus reduce the hardness of water, inhibit the oxidation, catalysis, Phosphates discoloration and decomposition of vitamin C caused by +, + and other metal cations, to prevent and delay fat oxidation, to prevent meat, poultry, fish, and maintain color. The chelation of phosphates depends on the length of the chain and the ph value. In general, the chain phosphates have strong chelate ability to the light metal ions, and increase with the increasing of ph value; Short chain phosphates have strong chelating ability to heavy metal ions, but the chelate effect weakens with the increase of ph value. ⑹ bacteriostasis, prolong shelf life of food: microbial cell growth must rely on bivalent metal cations, especially + and $number, and phosphates can be chelating with these metal cations, and it can reduce cell wall stability while dividing cells, and reduce the heat stability of many cells, thus effectively inhibiting bacterial breeding. The antimicrobial activity of polyphosphate was related to its species (chain length), content, ph value, salt content and nitrite content. Generally speaking, as the chain length increases, the bacteriostasis is enhanced.
Application of phosphates in grain and oil products
The improvement effect of ① phosphate on noodles mainly manifested in: increasing gluten strength, reducing starch dissolution, enhancing noodle viscoelasticity and improving noodle surface finish.
The application of ② phosphate in the production of quick-frozen steamed bread is mainly characterized by improving the texture and taste of steamed bread. Increase the water retention capacity of steamed bread, reduce the water loss in the process of forming, wake up and steaming, Phosphates increase the swelling degree of steamed bread, reduce the cracking after thawing of steamed bread, make the airbag of steamed bread more uniform, texture delicate, taste good.
③ compound phosphates also have a certain effect on frozen dumpling. Adding phosphates can inhibit the skin color of dumpling after thawing. The application of compound phosphates in sea product processing can effectively solve the problem of seafood flavor and nutrient loss, prevent and reduce the oxidation effect, reduce the body discoloration, taste, make its muscle tissue better water conservation, the flavor is more good, and in the thawing to improve its water retention.
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