There are 8 kinds of phosphates, including sodium tripolyphosphate, six sodium phosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, trisodium phosphate, sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium hydrogen phosphate two, acid-type pyrophosphate, pyrophosphate two hydrogen disodium, etc. The addition of these substances in food can help to diversify the food varieties, improve their color, aroma, taste and shape, keep the freshness and quality of food, Phosphates and meet the needs of processing process. They are important quality modifiers.
During the processing of meat products, the addition of phosphates has the following effects: To improve the ph value of meat, to chelate the metal ions in the meat, to increase the ionic strength of the meat and to extract the myosin. Therefore, after adding phosphates, Phosphates the water retention and yield of the products can be improved. However, phosphates improve meat retention, and the ability to improve meat quality depends on the type of phosphates applied, the conditions under which phosphate systems are applied, and the amount of phosphate added.
The phosphate has the function of keeping the water holding water and enhancing the knot effort in the meat products. Meat in freezing, refrigeration, thawing and heating process, will lose a certain amount of water, and make the meat harden, and lost some soluble protein and other nutrients. When adding phosphates to meat, it can improve the water holding capacity of meat, so that the meat can still keep its moisture in the process of processing, Phosphates so that the nutrients of meat are less lost, and the tenderness of the fleshy is preserved.
2, in the role of meat products:
① water-holding function: phosphate phosphate ions have chelate effect, can chelate and calcium, magnesium, iron, copper and other metal ions.
After adding phosphates to the meat, a large number of anions can be released these groups quickly affect the meat's water retention of calcium, magnesium and other cations, forming a stable bond, Phosphates so that the negatively charged carboxyl groups released, increased the negative charge of mutual repulsion, destroyed the protein structure of the main peptide chain, making the structure slack, Increased suction power. Poly-acid salt is a pro
water-based Water Retention agent, it is very good to the food contained in the moisture stability. The quality of water holding is related to the kinds of phosphates, the amount of additives, the ph value of food, and the ionic strength. For meat products and seafood, the best water holding capacity is pyrophosphate, Phosphates followed by triphosphate, as the chain length increases, the water holding capacity of poly phosphate will weaken.
② increases the ionic strength in the meat: the myosin dissolves in the water easy to become the gel, dissolves in the ionic strength more than 0.2 salt solution,
Under normal circumstances its water absorption is very low, however, after the addition of phosphates, it can provide more than 0.6 ionic strength, prompting the myosin from the muscle of the original fiber dissolved, to achieve a high water absorption, and the myosin has a very strong dispersion, Phosphates gel and emulsifying effect. Phosphate is a kind of polymerization dielectric, and has the characteristic of inorganic surfactant, can make the insoluble matter in water
Dispersing or forming a stable suspension to prevent the adhesion and condensation of suspension liquid.
③ Emulsification and dispersion: as phosphate can make the aqueous sol of protein form a plastic film on the fat sphere, so that fat is more effectively dispersed in the water, it is widely used in starch phosphorylation, pigment dispersion, emulsifying food (dairy products, ice cream, salad, sauces, etc.) and as a sausage, meat products, A dispersing stabilizer for surimi products. The emulsifying and dispersing capacity of the amylose is enhanced with the increase of chain length.
④ enhances protein and myosin, Phosphates enhances hydration and water-holding capacity of meat products, enhances water immersion, promotes softening of food and improves food quality, and keeps food flavor. After slaughter of livestock and poultry, Phosphates because the level of a T p decreased, the myosin
The protein and myosin of the muscle were isolated and the water-holding capacity of the meat was decreased. However, the low degree of polymerization of phosphate has a similar effect of adenosine three, which can make the myosin dissociation into actin and myosin, which increases the water retention and improves the tenderness of the meat. At the same time, phosphates in dairy products can prevent the condensation of milk when heated, Phosphates to prevent the separation of casein and fat water.
⑤ chelation: Phosphate is easy to form soluble collaterals and compounds with metal cations in solution, thus reduce the hardness of water, inhibit the oxidation, catalysis, discoloration and decomposition of vitamin C caused by +, + and other metal cations, to prevent and delay fat oxidation, to prevent meat, poultry, fish, and maintain color. The chelation of phosphates depends on the length of the chain and the ph value. Generally speaking, long
The chain phosphates have strong chelating ability to light metal ions, and increase with the increasing of ph value; Short chain phosphates have strong chelating ability to heavy metal ions, but the chelate effect weakens with the increase of ph value.
Application of phosphates in grain and oil products
The improvement effect of ① phosphate on noodles mainly manifested in: increasing gluten strength, reducing starch dissolution, enhancing noodle viscoelasticity and improving noodle surface finish.
The application of ② phosphate in the production of quick-frozen steamed bread is mainly characterized by improving the texture and taste of steamed bread and increasing the water retention of steamed bread
Ability to reduce the water loss in the process of forming, Phosphates wake up and steaming, increase the swelling degree of steamed bread, reduce the cracking after thawing of steamed bread, make the airbag of steamed bread more uniform, texture delicate, taste good.
③ compound phosphates also have a certain effect on frozen dumpling. Adding phosphates can inhibit the skin color of dumpling after thawing. The application of compound phosphates in sea product processing can effectively solve the problem of seafood flavor and nutrient loss, Phosphates prevent and reduce the oxidation effect, reduce the body discoloration, taste, make its muscle tissue better water conservation, the flavor is more good, and in the thawing to improve its water retention.
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