The role of phosphates in food processing is based mainly on the following characteristics of phosphates:
1, Buffering effect:
The ph value of phosphates is from the acidic (ph~4) to the strong alkaline (ph~12), and when different phosphates are matched in different proportions, Phosphates the ph value can be stabilized at PH4.5-11.7 Different levels of buffering agent. In the ph range of most foods (PH3.5-7.5), phosphates can be used as highly effective ph regulators and ph stabilizers to make food tastier. The strongest buffer is positive phosphates, and as the chain grows, the buffering capacity weakens.
2. Water Holding function:
Phosphate is a very hydrophilic water retention agent that can stabilize the moisture content in food. The quality of water holding is related to the kinds of phosphates, the amount of additives, the ph value of food, and the ionic strength. For meat products and seafood, Phosphates the best water holding capacity is pyrophosphate, followed by three phosphate, as the chain length increases, the water holding capacity of phosphate will weaken.
3, poly anion effect:
Phosphate is a kind of polymerization dielectric, and has the characteristic of inorganic surfactant, can make the insoluble matter in water disperse or form stable suspending liquid, in order to prevent the adhesion and condensation of the suspension liquid. Phosphates Because phosphate can make the water sol of protein form a kind of plastic film on the Fat Ball, so that the fat is more effectively dispersed in the water, it is widely used in starch phosphorylation, pigment dispersion, emulsifying food (dairy products, ice cream, salad, seasoning juice, etc.) and as a sausage, meat products, surimi products, a dispersing stabilizer. Phosphates In the case of Amylose, the emulsifying and dispersing ability is enhanced with the increase of chain length.
4, chelation cooperation:
Phosphate is easy to form soluble collaterals and compounds with metal cations in solution, in order to reduce the hardness of water, inhibit the oxidation, catalysis, Phosphates discoloration and decomposition of vitamin C caused by CU2, Fe3 and other metal cations, to prevent and delay fat oxidation, prevent meat, poultry, fish corruption, maintain color, To prolong the shelf life of the food.
5, protein function:
Phosphate can enhance the hydration and water retention of the meat products, improve the moisture saturation, promote the softening of food and improve the quality of food, and keep the flavor of food. At the same time, phosphates in dairy products can prevent the condensation of milk when heated, Phosphates to prevent the separation of casein and fat water.
6, the role of swelling:
Acidic phosphates (such as acid pyrophosphate, calcium dihydrogen phosphate) are usually used as an acid for baking products, and the reaction of bicarbonate to provide the required carbon dioxide gas for the baking process.
7, anti-caking effect:
Tricalcium phosphate is usually used as an anti caking agent to improve the free flow performance of powdered or hygroscopic foods. The specific surface area of tricalcium phosphate is larger, Phosphates it can combine with more water, and its special spherical crystal structure can produce "ball effect", so the powder has good free flow performance.
8, prolong the shelf life of food:
Phosphate can enhance the storage stability of food and prolong the shelf life of products. Phosphates This role is based mainly on:
(1) Ph regulation function;
(2) Bacteriostasis: Microbial cell growth must rely on bivalent metal cations, especially Ca2 and Mg2, and phosphates can be chelate with these metal cations, and it can reduce cell wall stability while cell division, and can reduce the thermal stability of many cells, Phosphates thus effectively inhibiting bacterial breeding. The antimicrobial activity of phosphates is related to its species (chain length), content, ph value, salt content and nitrite content. Generally speaking, as the chain length increases, the bacteriostasis is enhanced.
9, Mineral nutrition enhancement function:
Calcium phosphate, magnesium phosphate, ferric phosphate and zinc phosphate are often used as mineral nutrient enhancer in food processing (mineral enhancer). The addition of iron phosphate and zinc phosphate in gastric juice can enhance the biological effect of gastric juice because of its good solubility and does not promote the occurrence of natural oxidation.
Phosphates Application of phosphates in food processing
1, in meat products and poultry meat processing applications:
1 in order to improve the quality of meat products, usually meat products in the process of adding phosphates, its role is:
A. Improve the bonding property of meat products and improve the slice performance of meat products;
B. Improve the water holding capacity of meat, Phosphates so that meat products in the processing and cooking process can still maintain its natural moisture, reduce the loss of meat nutrients, preserved meat tenderness, improve the yield;
C. Control the ph value of meat products in the most suitable range of protein swelling and make meat produce the best color;
D. Improve emulsification performance and emulsification stability, Phosphates effectively prevent fat and water separation;
E. Closed metal cations, delaying the oxidation reaction in the processing of meat products, can effectively reduce the spoilage speed of the product, inhibit the decolorization and spoilage of meat, prolong the shelf life of meat products;
F. Improve the processing performance of meat products, improve production efficiency.
2 The water holding capacity of meat generally refers to in the process of processing, the moisture of meat and the retention ability of water added to the meat, Phosphates the level of holding water directly related to the quality and yield of meat products, adding phosphates can effectively improve the water-holding capacity of meat products. How to rationally use phosphates and other additives without affecting the flavor of meat products, Phosphates to maximize the water-holding capacity and adhesion of meat products and to reduce the burning loss of meat products, has been an important subject in the research and development of meat products.
3 Rational use of phosphates in meat processing
In practical application, we should choose the suitable phosphate species and the added quantity according to the type, quality requirement, production technology and raw material of the meat products. With the addition of pyrophosphate meat products, the natural water retention ability of the muscle protein is restored and enhanced, and the phosphate can be quickly converted into pyrophosphate under the action of the muscle enzymes, thus achieving the same effect. Although Pyrophosphate has the best water retention effect, Phosphates its solubility is too poor to be used alone in most cases, but it is often compounded with long chain phosphates or potassium phosphate salts with better solubility. In addition, a variety of complex meat improver are often used for synergistic synergism between phosphates and phosphates and other additives.
A. For sausage and meat products, pyrophosphate and medium chain-length phosphates are usually used in dry powder form to be added when chopped and mixed. Phosphates The ph value of the compound phosphates used is generally around 7, and sometimes the compound phosphates with a ph value higher than 9 are used.
B. Compound phosphates for injecting brine must meet the following requirements:
The solubility of ① in ice brine is good;
② high dissolution rate;
The stability of ③ in ice brine is good. The ph value of the composite phosphate used is generally 8.5-9.5. In preparing the injected ice brine for optimal muscle protein activation, it is best to dissolve the phosphates in ice water and then add salt, which is generally not reversed.
C. The addition of mixed phosphates is generally 0.1-0.4%, Phosphates but the dosage should be strictly controlled when used. If the added amount is too high, it will damage the flavor of the meat and affect the hair color as the ph value rises.
2. Application in Sea product processing:
1 phosphate as a good performance of water retaining agent, ph regulator and antifreeze agent is used in seafood, especially frozen seafood processing process, its role is:
A. Effectively improve the water holding capacity of seafood, make the gravy more rich, Phosphates effectively maintain nutrients and moisture;
B. Inhibit the oxidation of fat, effectively prolong the shelf life of seafood;
C. Reduce the loss of droplet after thawing and reduce the loss of cooking weight;
D. Maintain the natural color and flavor of seafood;
E. Synergistic synergism with sugars to effectively prevent the freeze denaturation of surimi protein.
2 in processing frozen shrimp, fish, shellfish seafood, usually products soaked in $number complex phosphate solution (temperature of less than 10 ℃), immersion concentration and soaking time according to shrimp, fish, shellfish seafood species, size and fishing time to determine.
The following factors should be taken into account when choosing the compound phosphates for immersion:
A) can effectively improve the water holding capacity of seafood;
b) Good solubility in ice water;
c) can dissolve rapidly in ice water;
D) Good stability in ice water. The ph value of the compound phosphate used is generally higher than 9.
3 The compound phosphates added in the general frozen surimi are mainly sodium pyrophosphate, Phosphates sodium tripolyphosphate and six sodium phosphate, and are added to the 0.1-0.3% of Surimi.
3. Application of phosphates in flour products
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