Organic compounds. Compounds containing carbon (carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, carbonates, metal carbides and a few other than simple carbon compounds) or hydrocarbons and their derivatives in General. Organic matter is the material basis of life.
Most of the organic compounds containing carbon, hydrogen, two main elements, also often contain phosphorus, halogen, oxygen, nitrogen, sulfur and so on. Some organic compounds from the plant Kingdom, but the vast majority are petroleum, natural gas, coal as raw material, made by synthetic methods.
Compared with inorganic, organics in large numbers, up to millions of species. Organic compounds of carbon atoms binding ability is very strong, and can be combined with each other into carbon chains or rings. Carbon atoms can be 1, 2, or it can be thousands of, and tens of thousands of organic polymers can even have many hundreds of thousands of carbon atoms. In addition, the isomerism in organic compounds is a universal phenomenon, which is one cause of many organic compounds.
Organic compounds other than a few, usually burn. Compared to inorganic materials and their relatively poor thermal stability, electrolytic heating break down easily. Lower melting points of organic compounds, generally not more than 400 ℃. Polarity of organic compounds is very weak, so they do not dissolve in water. Reaction between organic matter, most reactions between molecules, often requires a certain activation energy, slow responses, often requires a catalyst and the like. Reactions of organic compounds and complex, under the same conditions, a compound often can perform several different responses to produce different products.
History and naming
"Organic" this historic term, but plastic to 19th century, were considered only to biological organic compounds by vis Vitalis (life-force life) synthesis. This theory is based on organic and "inorganic" fundamental difference is not going to be the vitality of inorganic materials synthesis. But this theory was later overturned, Friedrich w which hler synthesis of urea with potassium cyanate and ammonium sulphate (an organism). In General, organic compounds are defined as compounds have carbon-hydrogen bond in inorganic compounds do not. Carbonic acid (H2CO3) is an inorganic compound, but formic acid (HCOOH first fatty acids) are organic compounds.
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